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Samuel Fogel Ph.D.

Vice President



Dr. Fogel has 25 years experience as an environmental microbiologist and biochemist.  He has published widely on the biodegradation of chlorinated compounds and PAHs in petroleum and coal tar.  Dr. Fogel designs and conducts anaerobic and aerobic laboratory simulations of chemicals undergoing biodegradation in soil and groundwater under conditions of natural attenuation and enhanced natural attenuation, carefully distinguishing abiotic from biotic processes.  He also conducts pilot and field scale remediations of chlorinated, petroleum and related chemicals. 





Microcosm Testing for Reductive Dechlorination

Bioremediation and Remedial Field Design

Treatability Design and Process Monitoring

Environmental Microbiology and Fate of Chemicals

Research and Technology Development





1993 to present.  Dr. Fogel is Vice President at Bioremediation Consulting Inc. a firm which performs microcosm testing, conducts R & D, offers participation in field scale bioremediation projects, with emphasis on conceptual design, treatability evaluations and process monitoring.


1989 to 1993.  Prior to joining Bioremediation Consulting Inc., Dr. Fogel was Director of Bioremediation Systems Division at ABB Environmental Services Inc.  This group (acquired from Cambridge Analytical) developed and implemented innovative biological and integrated treatment strategies for soil and groundwater contaminated with hazardous chemicals.   Dr. Fogel has been recognized as an authority on bioremediation by his selection as a member of the US EPA grant review panel.  He was principal investigator for several technology development and demonstration projects involving aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents.


1983 to 1989.  Prior to joining ABB-ES, Dr. Fogel was Vice President at Cambridge Analytical Associates (CAA) where he organized and managed the Bioremediation Systems (BRS) Division.  This group consisted of microbiologists, chemists, and engineers who carried out field remediation, lab treatabilities, and research and development projects.  He was also a key scientist in the Love Canal Rehabilitation Study.


1979 to 1982.  Dr. Fogel was senior research scientist at JBF Scientific Corporation.  During this period he functioned as an expert witness on the environmental fate of chemicals. He directed a several projects including a multimedia evaluation of mercury emissions, and biodegradation of chlorinated organic chemicals under sequential anaerobic/aerobic conditions.  Dr. Fogel was a key chemical fate expert in a three year negotiation for the S-Area Hazardous Waste Landfill in Niagara Falls New York.


1971 to 1978.  His previous experience at Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. and Process Research, Inc. included activities in the area of public health, microbiology of waste treatment systems, technical evaluations of sludge management planning and water quality assessments.  At Process Research he developed a unique method of modifying soil texture using biopolymers from algae.  (ERT acquired Process Research Inc.)


1968 to 1971.  Prior to working at Process Research, Inc., Dr. Fogel was a Research Associate at Harvard University in the Division of Applied Physics and Engineering, where he conducted studies on the topic of microbial ecology.  While at Harvard, he was a lecturer and co-organizer of the first Harvard University alumni summer course on environmental policy.  Dr. Fogel also was a participant of a two-year NIH postdoctoral fellowship in microbial physiology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.





Ph.D./Microbiology/Biochemistry, 1968, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL

M.S./ Bacteriology, 1963, Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, PA

B.S./ Pharmacy, 1960, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, Philadelphia, PA





American Chemical Society

Soil Science Society of America

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Society for Microbiology

Editorial Board Member of the Journal “Bioremediaton”

Review Panel Member of Harvard School Public Health Superfund Research.






Fogel, S., M. Findlay, and S. McMillen. 1998.  Incorporation of petroleum carbon into soil organic matter during biodegradation.  Bioremediation Journal 1(3):233-239


Kanaly, R., Bartha, R., Fogel, S. and M. Findlay.1997.Biodegradation of 14C benzo(a)pyrene added in crude oil to uncontaminated soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 4511-4515.


Moore, A., A. Vira, S. Fogel.  1989.  "Biodegradation of Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene by Methane Utilizing Bacteria in an Aquifer Simulator".  Environ. Scien. & Tech.  23:403-406.


Fogel, M.M., A. Taddeo and S. Fogel.  1986.  "Biodegradation of Chlorinated Ethenes by Methane-Utilizing Bacteria".  Appl. and Environ. Microbiol., 51: 720-724.


Fogel, S., R. Lancione, A. Sewall and R. Boethling.  1985.  "Application of Biodegradability.  Screening Tests to Insoluble Chemicals:  Hexadecane".  Chemosphere, 14: 375-382.


Fogel, S., R.L. Lancione and A.E. Sewall.  1982.  "Enhanced Biodegradation of a Chlorinated Pesticide as a Result of Sequential Exposure to Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions".  Applied Environ. Microbiol., 44: 113.


Chet, I., S. Fogel and R. Mitchell.  1972.  "Bacterial Chemoreception an Important Ecological Phenomenon Inhibited by Hydrocarbons".  Water Research, 6:  1137-1140.


Chet, I., S. Fogel, and R. Mitchell.  1971.  "Chemical Detection of Microbial Prey by Bacterial Predators".  J. Bacteriol., 106:863.


Fogel, S. and P. Sypherd.  1968.  "Chemical Basis for Heterogeneity of Ribosomal Proteins".  Proc. Nat'l Acad., Sci. U.S.  59:1329.


Fogel, S. and P. Sypherd.  1968.  "Extraction and Isolation of Individual Ribosomal Proteins from E. coli., J. Bacteriol., 96:368.


Fogel, S., A. Nisonoff, E. Mrgoliash and M. Reichlin.  1966.  "Antibodies Against Cytochrome C from Vertebrates".  J. Biol. Chem., 241: 251.




Young, S.Michael, C. Mallet, D. Mauro and Sam Fogel. 2003. The Determination of Biodegradation Products of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater Using LC/MS/MS. p.325 in ACS Symposium Series 850, Ed. I.Rerrer and E.M. Thurman. “Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, MS/MS and Time-of –Flight MS.


Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. 2000.  Microcosm Test for Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents.  Soil Sediment & Groundwater. February/March. P.13-16.


Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. 1997.  Fate of petroleum carbon during biodegradation.  Presented at the Fourth International In situ and On-site Brioremediation Symposium,  New Orleans, Apr 28, Battelle Press, Columbus, OH.


Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. 1997.  Crude oil biodegradation:  Mass balance used to validate gravimetric and GC methods. ibid.


Fogel, S. and M. Findlay. 1997.  Comparison of methods for evaluating petroleum biodegradation in soil. ibid.


Fogel, S., M. Findlay, and G. Douglas. 1997.  Crude oil biodegradation:  TPH, Alkanes, PAH and Volatile Hydrocarbons. ibid.


Fogel, S.,M. Findlay, C.Scholl and M. Warminsky, 1995. "Biodegradation and Bioavailability of bis(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate in Soil”, Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium:  In R.E.Hinchee, R.E. Hoeppel, D.B. Anderson (Eds.), Bioremediation of Recalcitrant Organics  3(7), pp. .315-322. Battelle Press, Columbus ,Ohio.


Fogel, S.,R. Lewis, D. Groher and M. Findlay. 1995. "PCE Treatment in Saturated Soil Columns:"Methanogens in Sequence with Methanotrophs” ,Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium: In R.E.Hinchee, A. Leeson, L.Semprini (Eds.), Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents 3(4) pp. 153-160. Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.


Findlay, M., A.C. Leonard, S. Fogel and W.H. Mitchell. 1995. " Laboratory Biodegradation to Define, Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium: In Situ Potential for PCE Transformation". In R.E. Hinchee, C. M. Vogel, F.J. Brockman (Eds.), Microbial Processes for Bioremediation, 3(8) 223-229. Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.


Findlay, M and S. Fogel, Lee Conway and Arthur Taddeo. 1995.  "Field Treatment of Coal Tar Contaminated Soil Based on Results of Laboratory Treatability Studies. " in Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals, ed. by L. Young and C. Cerniglia, John Wiley & Sons, New York..


Fogel, S.,1994. " Full-Scale Bioremediation of No. 6 Fuel Oil-Contaminated Soil: 6 Months of Active and 3 years of Passive Treatment" in Bioremediation, Field Experience, page 161-175, ed. by P.Flathman, D.Jerger and J.Exner, Lewis Pub.,Boca Raton


Findlay, M., S. Fogel and J. Borovsky, 1994.  "Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil From a Crank Case Oil Refining Site". In Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Vol 4: pp. 323-333, Ed. E. Calabrese, P. Kostecki and M. Bonazountas.  Amherst Scientific Publishers, Amherst, MA 01002.


Fogel, S., M. Jones, R. Butts, and M. Findlay, 1993.  "Bioremediation of a No. 6 Fuel Spill on Soil: Changes in Petroleum Composition over Time", in Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Vol 111, P.569-580 ed by E.Calabrese and P. Kostecki.,Lewis Pub. Boca Raton.


Vira, A., J. Byrnes, S. Fogel, 1992.  "Technological Requirements for the Maintenance of Specialized Cultures in the Subsurface Environment:  Complete Degradation of PCE."  Proceeding Air and Waste Management Association, 85th Annual Meeting, Kansas City, Missouri.  June 21 - 26.


Vira, A., S. Fogel, L. Klink, J. Coho, and M. Campbell, 1992.  "Bench-scale Demonstration of a Methanotrophic Rotating Biological Contactor for Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with Both Chlorinated and Non-chlorinated Chemicals from Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas."  Proceedings Water Environment Federation, 65th Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.  September 20 - 24.


Fogel, S., M. Leahy, M. Jones, and R. Butts, 1991.  "Bioremediation of a No. 6 Fuel Spill: Comparison of Laboratory Treatability Data with Field Remediation Data in Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil, Volume 1 edited by E. Calabrese and P. Kostecki, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.


Fogel, S., R. Norris, E. Crockett and M. Findlay.  1988.  "Enhanced Bioremediation Techniques for In Situ and On Site Treatment of Petroleum Contaminated Soils and Groundwater".  In Proceedings:  3rd Conference on Environmental and Public Health Effects of Soils Contaminated with Petroleum.  Amherst, MA.  Sept. 1988.


Fogel, S., and M. Findlay.  1988.  "Bioremediation Techniques for In Situ Treatment of Soil and Water.  Second Annual Northeast Underground Storage Tank Management and Hydrocarbon Contamination Clean Up Conference.  Sturbridge, MA.  April.


Fogel, S., M.C. Leahy, A. Moore and M. Fogel.  1987.  Biodegradation of chlorinated solvents by methane oxidizing bacteria".  Annual Meeting American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York Hilton, New York, NY.  November.


Fogel, S., M. Findlay, A. Moore, and M.C. Leahy.  1987a.  "Biodegradation of chlorinated chemicals in ground water by methane oxidizing bacteria".  National Water Well Associations, November, Houston, Texas.


Fogel, S., M.C. Leahy, M. Fogel, J. Schneider, M. Danna, and A. Vira.  1987b.  "Biodegradation of Adsorbed Jet Fuel".  Final Report to the U.S. Air Force on Contract #F08635-86-C-0232.


Wilson, J.T., S. Fogel and P.N. Roberts.  1987c.  "Biological Treatment of Trichloroethylene In Situ."  Proceedings:  Symposium on Groundwater Contamination, ASCE Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey.


Taddeo, A., M. Fogel and S. Fogel.  1987d.  "Biodegradation of PAH in Coal Tar by a Mixed Culture During Simulated Land Treatment".  Presented at ASM, Atlanta, GA.


Fogel, S., M.C. Leahy, M. Fogel, M. Young and M. Danna.  1986a.  "Final report to the National Science Foundation:  The Biodegradation of Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds by Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria:  Mechanisms and Products.  Cambridge Analytical Associates, October, 1986.


Fogel, S., A. Taddeo and M. Fogel.  1986b.  Final report to Northeast Utilities Company:  Wallingford Lakebed Coal-Tar Deposits:  Land Treatment.  September, 1986.


Conway, H.L.,T. Wasielewski, M. Fogel and S. Fogel.  1986c.  "Land Treatment of Coal Tar-Contaminated Soil at a Former Water Gas Production Site in Connecticut".  Symposium American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1986 Summer National Meeting.


Fogel, S.  1984.  Affidavit on "Fate of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater and Soil of S-Area Hazardous Waste Site in Niagara Falls, NY".  U.S. District Court for Western District of New York, Civil Action No. 79-988.


Fogel, S., P. Schenck, J.D. Smith and W. Walker.  1974.  "The Effects of Algae on Soil Structure".  Process Research, Inc.


Fogel, S., P. Foster, P. Schenck and W. Walker.  1974.  "The Aggregate Promoting and Stabilizing Effect of a Polysaccharide from the Soil Algae Chlamydomonas Mexican".  Agronomy Abstracts.


Fogel, S. and J.D. Smith.  1971.  "The Charles River":  Appendix DD, Report of the Special Legislative Commission on Boston Harbor Pollution and Waterfront Development.




"Impact of the Federal Water Pollution "Control Act (PL-92-500) on the Charles River and Boston Harbor", Report to the National Commission on Water Quality, Washington, DC  1975.


Fogel, S., P. Foster, P. Schenck, and W. Walker.  1974.  "Growth of a Flocculant Producing Algae on Soil and its Effect on Soil Structure", Agronomy Abstracts.


"A Literature and Laboratory Investigation of the Influence of Water Solubility on the Biodegradation of Organic Chemicals", Prepared for office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. EPA, Contract No.:  68-01-6337.  December, 1981.


Development of Biodegradation Test Methods, Fate of Chemicals in Soil Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions", Prepared for Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. EPA, Contract No. 68-01-5141.  1981.


"Institutional Constraints and Public Acceptance Barriers in the Use of Sludge for Land Reclamation", Contract to Urgan Systems Research and Engineering.  September, 1980.


"Residuals Management Planning for the Boston Metropolitan Area", Prepared for the National Science Foundation, Contract No. CPRA77-15337, 1979.


Toxics Manual:  A Review and Analysis of Waterborne Toxicants, Prepared for the EPA, ContractNo. WA76-B147.  April, 1977.


"Pretreatment Guidance Manual for State and Area-Wide (208) Water Quality Management Planning Agencies", Vol. 1 and 2, Environmental Protection Agency Contract No.  68-01-3559.  April, 1976.


"Environmental Impact Assessment of the Piscataway Regional Wastewater Management Facility", Report to the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission, Hayattsville, MD.   lle,MD 1975.


"Innovative Technology Study", Report to the National Commission on Water Quality, Washington, DC. 1975.


Fogel, S. and J. Goodman.  1975.  "Waterborne Toxicants:  A Stimulus for Reorienting Water Programs", Prepared for the Water Planning Division of the U.S. EPA.




U.S. Patents No. 434, 332 (January 17, 1974), "Soil Treatment Methods", S. Fogel, P. Foster, P. Schenck, and W. Walker, Jr.


U.S. Patent No. 421, 527 (December 4, 1973), "Production of Algal Biopolymers, S. Fogel, P. Foster, P. Schenck, and W. Walker, Jr.


U.S. Patent No. 5,196,121 (March 23,1993)," Decomposition of Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in a Bioreactor.